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by Peter Moskos

September 30, 2011

Cop Think

A pretty fabulous op-ed from a retired NYPD Captain on ticket fixing and police culture.
Like any other profession, police work is subject to evolution. This situation is just the latest in a never-ending world of transition.

I accept that. But let's not pretend we've suddenly discovered some major moral rot deep in the heart of the NYPD.

Fact is, recently introduced technology prevents summonses from being simply "pulled out of the box." Almost all of the incidents being investigated occurred prior to the computerization of summonses. So the culture was already in the process of changing.

Should these cops be punished? Yes, all extended courtesies are a calculated risk, and they lost. So be it.

Should they be arrested? Stripped of their pensions? If it's outright bribery, okay, no problem. If it's drug-related, goodbye, who needs you.

But most of these cases don't fit into those categories. And many of those who now stand in judgment of these cops, both internal and external to the NYPD, either did the same exact things or have been beneficiaries of similar "courtesies": That's where the hypocrisy is repulsive.
I never fixed any tickets as a cop. But it's not like the people I gave tickets to had any clout. The idea of fixing tickets is less in the Baltimore police culture than NYPD culture. I would have done what I could for a friend... but not for a "union card". And there was no "formal" system I knew of (ie: you could contact the individual officer, but it wasn't like the FOP had a formal system.).

When I was new in Baltimore. Like the day I moved in, I got a ticket for parking in a normally legal place near the Greek church that was going to be the scene of the annual Greek Fest. It was an honest mistake. Miss Mary, my wonderful Greek-American landlady (I miss her, rest in peace), hailed the well known Greek-American cop who patrolled Greektown. I moved my car. She explained the situation to Nick. And he ripped up my ticket.

I thought that was good policing.

September 29, 2011

The more things change... September 29, 1829

Here’s the very first new rule, just a few months into London’s experiment with the New Police (and London probably didn’t really even have the first police department, either). Apparently, back in the good old days, officers were drinking, had a bit of a temper, carried umbrellas and other weapons, engaging in idle chit chat, and hide their identification numbers:
September 29, 1829.—Police Constables should take timely warning from the dismissals that have already taken place; for they may rest assured that no man will be suffered to remain a day on the Police Force who shall be found in the slightest degree intoxicated on Duty; they are also particularly cautioned not to pay attention to any ignorant or silly expressions of ridicule that may be made use of towards them personally, all which they must feel to be beneath their notice.

They are forbidden to carry sticks or umbrellas in their hands when on Duty.

They are also strictly forbidden to enter into conversation with any person whatever, except on matters relative to their Duty.

The Police Constables are particularly desired immediately to give their names, and the Division they belong to, to any person demanding it, until the whole have their clothing and numbered hat-covers for the night Duty.
Source: Metropolitan Police. Instructions Orders &c. &c. 1836. London: W. Clowes & Sons.

[I'm on break. Regular blogging will resume in February.]

September 28, 2011

Bad Day at the Office

Come on, walking up to somebody you've penned up (for not moving?!), macing them, and walking away? Of course it's indefensible. And it's not fair to the officers trying to deal with the situation... the officers who were dealing with the situation, acting professionally in a stressful situation.

This guy had a very bad day at the office. But if that's the worst thing he's done in 30 years, it doesn't mean he should lose his job. Nobody died. Still, a little contrition, an apology, and a departmental reprimand are indeed in order! Maybe he should think about retiring; perhaps policing has changed a little faster than he's been able to keep up with.

I also find it funny that "blocking traffic" (except when it's done by the police) is somehow such a horrible offense and justification. It's not like traffic flows that well anyway. Causing a traffic jam? Not good. But so what? Traffic jams happens. Certainly in Manhattan. If it mattered so much, we should ban the president from visiting, police funerals, and the entire United Nations general assembly.

But what do I know? I'm thousands of miles away, in England, closer to deer and pheasants than protesters.

September 19, 2011

We're Going to Rock Down to, Electric Avenue...

...And then we'll take it higher.

I was in Brixton, London, today and stumbled across... Electric Avenue. There's a market there.

I had no idea Electric Avenue was a real place. Nor that the song was even "set" in London.

As a fan of 80's hip hop, I felt the same way I felt in my early days in New York City: Delancey Street; Hollis, Queens; Farmers Blvd; Sugar Hill; the South Bronx; Queensbridge; "next stop, 125th St."... it's all for real. (As is Brighton Beach, if you groove more with Neil Simon.)

I cannot, however, verify the Bristol Hotel (much less Room 515). But we all know where it's at: Jamaica, Queens!

September 15, 2011

The Principles That Never Were

It turns out the Peel’s famous "Principles of Policing" are a fraud. I kind of always suspected that... but not so much that I didn’t quote them at length in the afterward to the paperback edition of Cop in the Hood. I should have known better because Susan Lentz and Robert Chaires had already published an article stating as much in 2007: “The Invention of Peel’s Principles: A study of policing ‘textbook’ history.” Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol. 35, pp. 69-79. But I only became aware of this article two days ago, thanks entirely to the ace library staff here at the National Police Improvement Agency at Bramshill, UK.

I believed in Peel’s Principles. I still do. But I never was able to trace them earlier that Reith's (1948) A Short History of the British Police. Reith cites Lee's (1901) A History of Police in England, which I have (and the principles ain't in them). This made me suspicious. But it’s not easy to get one’s hands on the original 1829 Patrol Guide: Metropolitan Police—Instructions to Police Officers. It turns out these instructions are all of 60 pages, which puts contemporary Patrol Guides or General Orders to shame.

Well the original (or a copy of it) exists here at Bramshill, England, and I spend a day going through it. What does Peel say? Well, very little (and more likely Commissioner Rowan wrote it). It’s mostly nitty gritty details about what each rank (all four of them) is supposed to do. It's interesting, mind you. Constables were paid 3 shilling a day and were expected to work 12 hours-a-day, half on the beat and half in the station as a reserve force. But it says nothing about "the police being the public and public the police." There's a whole lot about the importance of following orders.

The guide does say, and I’ll quote at length because this is hard-to-fine source material:
INSTRUCTIONS

The following General Instructions for the different ranks of the Police Force are not to be understood as containing rules of conduct applicable to every variety of circumstances may occur in the performance of their duty; something must necessarily be left to the intelligence and discretion of individuals; and according to the degree in which they shew [sic] themselves possessed of these qualities, and to their zeal, activity, and judgment, on all occasions, will be their claims to future promotion and reward.

It should be understood, at the outset, that the principal object to be attained is “the Prevention of Crime.”

To this great end every effort of the Police is to be directed. The security of person and property, the preservation of the public tranquility, and all the other objects of a Police Establishment, will thus be better effected, than by the detection and punishment of the offender, after he has succeeded in committing the crime. This should constantly be kept in mind by every member of the Police Force, as the guide for his own conduct. Officers and Police Constables should endeavour to distinguish themselves by such vigilance and activity as may render it extremely difficult for any one to commit a crime within that portion of the town under their charge. (pp. 1-2)
...

POLICE CONSTABLE.

Every Police constable in the Force may hope to rise by activity, intelligence, and good conduct, to the superior stations. he must make it his study to recommend himself to notice by a diligent discharge of his duties, and strict obedience to the commands of his superiors, recollecting, that he who has been accustomed to submit to discipline, will be considered best qualified to command.
...
He must readily and punctually obey the orders and instructions of the Sergeants, inspectors, and Superintendents. if they appear to him either unlawful or improper, he may complain to the commissioners, who will pay due attention to him; but any refusal to perform the commands of his superiors, or negligence in doing so, will not be suffered.
...
[H]e is to be marched by his Serjeant to the Section. A particular portion of the Section is committed to his care: he will have previously received from his Serjeant a card with the name of the streets, &c. forming his Beat. he will be held responsible for the security of life and property, within his Beat, and for the preservation of the peace and general good order, during the time he is on duty.
...
It is indispensably necessary, that he should make himself perfectly acquainted with all the parts of his beat or section, with the streets, thoroughfares, courts, and houses.

He will be expected to possess such a knowledge of the inhabitants of each house, as will enable him to recognize their persons. He will thus prevent mistakes, and be enabled to render assistance to the inhabitants when called for.

He should be able to see every part of his beat, at least once in ten minutes or a quarter of an hours; and this he will be expected to do; so that any person requiring assistance, by remaining in the same spot for that length of time, may be able to meet a Constable.

This regularity of moving through his beat shall not, however, prevent his remaining at any particular place, if his presence there be necessary to observe the conduct of any suspected person, or for any other good reason; but he will be required to satisfy his Serjeant [sic], or superior Officers, that there was a sufficient cause for such apparent irregularity. He will also attend at the appointed times, to make a report to his Serjeant of any thing [sic] requiring notice.

He is not to call the hour; and if at any time he requires immediate assistance, and can-not in any other way obtain it, he must spring his rattle, but this is to be done as seldom as possible, for though he is provided with one, and may sometimes find it necessary to use it, such alarms often creates the inconvenience, which it is intended to prevent, by assembling a crowd; thus giving an opportunity of escape to the criminals. He will be required to report to the Serjeant of his party, every occasion of his using the rattle. (pp. 37-40)
...
On no pretence [sic] shall he enter any public house, except in the immediate execution of his Duty; such a breach of positive order will not excused: the publican himself is subject to a severe fine, for allowing him to remain in his house. No liquor of any sort, shall be taken from a publican, without paying for it at the time.

He will be civil and attentive to all persons, of every rank and class; insolence or incivility will not be passed over. (p. 41)
...
While on Duty, he must not enter into conversation with any one, except on matters relating to his Duty.

He must be particularly cautious, not to interfere idly or unnecessarily; when required to act, he will do so with decision and boldness; on all occasions he may expect to receive the fullest support in the proper exercise of his authority.

He must remember, that there is no qualification more indispensable to a Police Officer than a perfect command of temper, never suffering himself to be moved in the slightest degree, by any language or threats that may be used; if he do his Duty in a quiet and determined manner, such conduct will probably induce well-disposed by-standers to assist him, should he require it.” (p.42)
Certainly prevention of crime is at the core of Peel’s Principles. And the Instructions do mention treating all classes equally, keeping one's cool, and gaining knowledge of one's beat. But there's more emphasis on staying sober, quiet, and following orders. The nine ideals? They simply don’t exist in Peel’s time. They were invented in the 20th century and have since achieved a life of their own (Lentz and Chaires, 2007).

There are a ton of great documents here in the Bramshill library. For all you Broken Windows fans, one from 1901 specifically mentions “disorder” (Instructions for the Lancaster Borough Police Force. Leeds: McCorquodale & Co (p. B1): “The absence of crime and disorder will be considered the best proof of the complete efficiency of the Police.”

The book I found most interesting (and it was wonderful to spend a day poring through old books in a library housed in a 400-year-old mansion) was the 1836 update to the 1829 guide from Peel and Company: Metropolitan Police. Instructions Orders &c. &c. This lists all the new regulations implemented after 1829. Why is that important? Because we don’t have a good idea about what police actually did 200 years ago. But you can tell damn well what some of them did by the rules they made. Every time an officer messed up, they made a rule. Some things never change!

My next posts (mostly because I've already typed in the text, so this will be easy for me to do) will list these new rules, one by one, in real time, 182 years after the fact (the first was issued on September 29, 1829). Read between the lines and image being a police officer in the 1830s. Maybe it wasn't so different after all.

September 5, 2011

Bon Voyage!

It's September 5th, 2011. Today happens to be my 40th birthday. But unrelated, my wife will soon be boarding the Queen Mary 2 in Brooklyn for an Atlantic Ocean crossing. We are packing our steamer trunks and hat boxes.

Here's our view and where we are.

I just learned that when my mother came to America in 1958, she was on the MS Berlin. I wonder if the QM2 will be anything like this?


I'm going to England for two months of work and research with the police. After that, the current plan is to work our way east, far east, on the Trans-Siberian Express (I hear Siberia is beautiful in, er, December). We probably won't be back until January, 2012.

I don't expect to post much at all while I'm gone. So until then, take care and stay safe.

If you know any must-see sights in say, Perm or Yekaterinburg, let me know.

September 4, 2011

Sneak-and-Peek

There's an interesting chart in New York Magazine that shows what the Patriot Act is used for.
Delayed-notice search warrants issued under the expanded powers of the Patriot Act, 2006–2009:

For drugs: 1,618
For fraud: 122
For Terrorism: 15

September 3, 2011

Irene Crime

One last bit on crime in New York City during Irene:
There were about 30 arrests citywide for crimes committed between midnight and 7:30 a.m. during a police tour of duty that roughly matched the duration of the storm’s approach and arrival. (An earlier estimate of 45 arrests — described by the mayor as proving the inherent goodness of New Yorkers — included crimes committed earlier.) Last year, in the same period, there were about 345 arrests.
...
The weather played a ... direct role in some: When an officer in the Bronx said he saw Davian McCarthy, 28, carrying a revolver in his waistband, he noted, while arresting the man, that the gun had been carefully wrapped in plastic.

September 1, 2011

Baltimore City's curfew center

To round up wandering kids in an effort to combat mobs of roving teens. From the Sun:
Baltimore's curfew center began four years ago — a collaborative effort among police, the school system and social services — to get kids off the street and away from potential harm.

Their work has taken on a new urgency as other cities grapple with so-called "flash robs," most notably Philadelphia, which moved up its curfew to 9 p.m. in hopes of combating large, roving groups of young people who caused mayhem there.
Now if only there were a center to pick up mobs of roaming parents.

NM officer having sex on car hood won't be charged

I just like the headline. And no, sex is not a crime... even on duty (though it should be an admin issue).

Update: He got fired.

Remember Dudas?

Jamaican Kingpin pleads guilty in New York.

I'm surprised he lived to see the day.